237131_A2_Week9 _ Māori Sterotypes and Pōwhiri _04/10/2016.

Draw (collage/photograph/paint/whatevs) the stages of the pōwhiri in a series of illustrated panels. This can be as sophisticated or as low-fi as you like – it just needs to clearly communicate the pōwhiri process to an unfamiliar audience. Imagine you are drawing it for people who have never been onto a marae. You may like to pick a particular time period (i.e. the 1400s, 1890s, 1950s, 2010s, the future) and allow that to inform your stylistic decisions. Remember to include relevant key terms and to clearly name each part of the pōwhiri. Use “Ngā tikanga o te marae” (Rawinia Higgins and John C. Moorfield) to inform your drawing.

The perspective that I have done this works in are from the perspective of the manuhiri, the visitors coming onto the marae.


Whakaeke – the movement of the manuhiri onto the marae ātea.  A wero is performed by the armed warrior(s) that is sent to greet the visitors at the entryway to perform the ritual. This is completed to maintain the mana of the tangata whenua. Once the male leader has picked up the taki, a women will karanga. Today this starts the pōhiri 6. There karanga is by one or more women from the tangata whenua, then the women form the visitors will respond with their calls as they move onto the marae.


Whaikōreo – the formal speeches given. Koha is also given and received. The whaikōreo is typically started with a whakaaraara, tau or tauparapara before making acknowledgment of the marae, where tipuna, mate, and eventually the purpose of the hui. The whaikōreo follows kawa of the marae. A koha is given by the visitors to the tangata whenua at the end of the speeches. traditional māori society this koha was typically food, especially delicacies form the local area of the visitors and/or taonga, which could be weapons to finely woven cloaks. Today is typically a sum of money.


Hongi – Greeting of noses. The hongi is given to the speakers of the tangata whenua, standing all in a line. There is a handshake and hongi (greetings by pressing of noses) this is greet everyone. The hongi completes the formalities of the pōhiri. The process is the gradual coming together of the manuhiri and the tangata whenua.

Melanie Wall identifies some of the more common Māori stereotypes that have appeared in New Zealand’s media. Take one of the examples of representations of Māori from Dick’s lecture and discuss it in relation to Wall’s ideas (100 words).

One way that Dick describes one representation of Māori is the contrast between Māori art and Western art and how this could represent Māori. For example Dick uses Michael Parekowhai’s work The Indefinite Article (1990) as an example of talking about gender. I AM HE could be interpreted as the male gender being dominant and that you are HE and not representing both genders. I believe this could relate to the way Melanie Wall identifies that when Māori were generalised in the media as being all male in their 20s or 30s when encountering a political situation (43). Here we can understand that the representation of Māori in the media is predominantly male and that everyone is put into a pool of gender stereotype.

Texts Referenced:

(Moorfield, John C., and Rawinia Higgins. ““Ngā Tikanga O Te Marae”.” Ki Te Whaiao: An Introduction to Māori Culture and Society. By Tania Ka’ai. Auckland, N.Z.: Pearson Longman, 2004. 73-84. Print.)

(Wall, Melanie. “Stereotypical Constructions of the Maori ‘Race’ in the Media.” New Zealand Geographer 1997: 40-45. Print.)

(Whyte, Dick. “Stereotypes and Speaking Back to New Zealand’s Dominant Culture.” Conversations in Creative Cultures Lecture. Massey University, Wellington. 30 Sept. 2016. Lecture.)

(Parekowhai, Michael. The Indefinite Article. 1990. Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland. The Indefinite Article. Regional Facilities Auckland, 2009. Web. 8 Oct. 2016.)


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