237131_A2_Week11 _ Years Pōwhiri Process _18/10/2016.

1. In each of your assignments for Studio this year you made work that responded to a concept integral to the pōwhiri process – Mihimihi, Tūrangawaewae,  Atea, and Hākari. Define the concept that corresponds with the project you feel was the best thing you made in Studio all year. (25 words)

Tūrangawaewae means standing, a place where one has the right to stand (Māori Dictionary). I believe that in correspondence to the meaning of Tūrangawaewae, this was the best project as I believe I felt quite a connection to the memory I have and the place where it happened, creating the place where I created my right to stand there.

2. Discuss the work you made: describe its physical attributes, the concept/s behind it, and the wider context in which you made it. (100 words)

The physical attributes around the work was inspired by a photography event I attended in Queenstown. Here I wanted to look into the relationship between the body and the camera itself. Here I looked into ways of how the camera was held in the hand and ways of making this more comfortable. Here I was able to design a product that fit onto your hand nicely and be able to change the focus and move the camera lens.

3. Erna Stachl discusses decolonisation and Mana Wahine in her lecture. How did you consider gender and/or indigeneity and/or the intersections between the two in your work? Why should you be thinking about this at all? Use key ideas in the lecture and the texts by Ani Mikaere and Linda Tuhiwai-Smith to support your argument. (75 words)

When creating this art piece,  I didn’t feel I really needed to take gender into account because I felt that it could be used across both genders equally. As for indigeneity, this was something that didn’t cross my mind either. If I was thinking about creating an intersection between the two, I would look into the way that imported ideologies could effect my design and how I could change these ideologies. With Erna talking about imported ideologies or western perceptions, I would like to see whether my design cold change this for a more positive outcome.

Text Referenced:

(Www.vo2.co.nz. “MāoriDictionary.” Tūrangawaewae. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2016.)

(Stachl, Erna. “Week 11: Looking at Mana Wahine and Decolonisation.” Lecture 11 – Looking at Mana Wahine and Decolonisation – Erna Stachl. Massey University, Wellington. 14 Oct. 2016. Lecture.)

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237131_A2_Week10 _ Cultural Identity _11/10/2016.

Inspired by Kerry Ann Lee’s lecture and Tze Ming Mok’s essay, create a piece of creative non-fiction in which you talk about your own cultural identity. You must make at least one connection with a significant moment in the history of Aotearoa (i.e. like Tze Ming Mok did with the attack on Chi Phung, the National Front protest, and the Seabed and Foreshore hīkoi), and you must draw from your own lived experience. (200 words)

When it comes to cultural identity, I firstly like to remember where I came from and my families history and stories. One part of my families history that still happens today is a tangi that are held for family member at the marae. After my grandfathers passing we had a traditional tangi where family members travelled back to Rangeitukia, Ngāti Porou. Here this is where I learnt about previous family members that had been part of the 28th Māori Battalion. Here I learnt about the history of the Māori Battalion and how these men going away as part of the 2nd division had a massive effect on Māori families during World War II. One part that inspired me the most is an image of the Māori Battalion haka in Egypt 1941. Here I was able to see two members of my iwi in uniform performing a haka for the King of Greece, John Manual and Te Kooti Reihana. It is amazing to see that this image has been graved in the history of the 28th Māori Battalion and I am proud to see this history being seen by generations to come.

Go to the library and ask for one of the 237.1312 hour loan books. Find the name of a creative practitioner in that book, then search for that name on the book catalogue PCs (upstairs, Level B – don’t use Discover). Locate an image of their work (preferably in print) that fits with your creative writing. Scan this and upload it to your blog, remembering to include a caption.

screen-shot-2016-10-12-at-11-11-52-am

Māori Battalion War Memorial Building. N.d. Palmerston North City Library Photograph Collection, Palmerston North. Māori Art : History, Architecture, Landscape and Theory. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 166. Print. Architect of Building: John Scott

237131_A2_Week9 _ Glossary _04/10/2016.

Words and definitions are gathered from  “Ngā tikanga o te marae” (Rawinia Higgins and John C. Moorfieldo) and maoridictionary.co.nz

Hui – to gather, to meet, to assemble

Manuhiri – visitors, guest

marae ātea – courtyard

wharenui – meeting house, where guests are accommodated

waerea – protective incantation (series of words said as a magic charm or spell)

karakia – to recite ritual chants, say grace, pray, recite a prayer, chant.

mākutu – ability to inflict physical or physiological her or death through spiritual powers.

wero – a challenge delivered by the tangata whenua to the visitors to determine the nature of the encounter.

Tangata Whenua – at home, to be natural

taki – dart

waewae tapu – newcomer, rare visitor.

karanga – to call, to shout, to summon, to call out.

whaikōrero – formal speech

whakaeke – to attack, insult, invade, alight.

haka pōhiri – welcoming haka, ceremonial dance.

rau – green leaves

paepae – orators’ bench

whakaaraara. – warning call

tau- year, age

tauparapara – incantation to begin the speech

whare tipuna – ancestral house

mate – dead

kawa – protocols

koha – gifts or tokens of appreciation

whakanoa – to remove tapu

tangi – to cry, to mourn, weep, weep over.

waiata – to sing

harirū – to shake hands

manaakitanga – generosity, kindness, hospitality

manaaki – to support, take care of

pepeha – to say, exclaim

237131_A2_Week9 _ Māori Sterotypes and Pōwhiri _04/10/2016.

Draw (collage/photograph/paint/whatevs) the stages of the pōwhiri in a series of illustrated panels. This can be as sophisticated or as low-fi as you like – it just needs to clearly communicate the pōwhiri process to an unfamiliar audience. Imagine you are drawing it for people who have never been onto a marae. You may like to pick a particular time period (i.e. the 1400s, 1890s, 1950s, 2010s, the future) and allow that to inform your stylistic decisions. Remember to include relevant key terms and to clearly name each part of the pōwhiri. Use “Ngā tikanga o te marae” (Rawinia Higgins and John C. Moorfield) to inform your drawing.

The perspective that I have done this works in are from the perspective of the manuhiri, the visitors coming onto the marae.

1

Whakaeke – the movement of the manuhiri onto the marae ātea.  A wero is performed by the armed warrior(s) that is sent to greet the visitors at the entryway to perform the ritual. This is completed to maintain the mana of the tangata whenua. Once the male leader has picked up the taki, a women will karanga. Today this starts the pōhiri 6. There karanga is by one or more women from the tangata whenua, then the women form the visitors will respond with their calls as they move onto the marae.

2

Whaikōreo – the formal speeches given. Koha is also given and received. The whaikōreo is typically started with a whakaaraara, tau or tauparapara before making acknowledgment of the marae, where tipuna, mate, and eventually the purpose of the hui. The whaikōreo follows kawa of the marae. A koha is given by the visitors to the tangata whenua at the end of the speeches. traditional māori society this koha was typically food, especially delicacies form the local area of the visitors and/or taonga, which could be weapons to finely woven cloaks. Today is typically a sum of money.

3

Hongi – Greeting of noses. The hongi is given to the speakers of the tangata whenua, standing all in a line. There is a handshake and hongi (greetings by pressing of noses) this is greet everyone. The hongi completes the formalities of the pōhiri. The process is the gradual coming together of the manuhiri and the tangata whenua.

Melanie Wall identifies some of the more common Māori stereotypes that have appeared in New Zealand’s media. Take one of the examples of representations of Māori from Dick’s lecture and discuss it in relation to Wall’s ideas (100 words).

One way that Dick describes one representation of Māori is the contrast between Māori art and Western art and how this could represent Māori. For example Dick uses Michael Parekowhai’s work The Indefinite Article (1990) as an example of talking about gender. I AM HE could be interpreted as the male gender being dominant and that you are HE and not representing both genders. I believe this could relate to the way Melanie Wall identifies that when Māori were generalised in the media as being all male in their 20s or 30s when encountering a political situation (43). Here we can understand that the representation of Māori in the media is predominantly male and that everyone is put into a pool of gender stereotype.

Texts Referenced:

(Moorfield, John C., and Rawinia Higgins. ““Ngā Tikanga O Te Marae”.” Ki Te Whaiao: An Introduction to Māori Culture and Society. By Tania Ka’ai. Auckland, N.Z.: Pearson Longman, 2004. 73-84. Print.)

(Wall, Melanie. “Stereotypical Constructions of the Maori ‘Race’ in the Media.” New Zealand Geographer 1997: 40-45. Print.)

(Whyte, Dick. “Stereotypes and Speaking Back to New Zealand’s Dominant Culture.” Conversations in Creative Cultures Lecture. Massey University, Wellington. 30 Sept. 2016. Lecture.)

(Parekowhai, Michael. The Indefinite Article. 1990. Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland. The Indefinite Article. Regional Facilities Auckland, 2009. Web. 8 Oct. 2016.)