237131_A2_Week8 _ People vs. Poverty _27/09/2016.

Select one of the examples of a representation of poverty or wealth in Aotearoa New Zealand in Dr. Greg Gilbert’s lecture. Upload an image of this example to your blog. Describe the example and the context in which it was made, then discuss it in relation to one of the key concepts Greg introduced in his lecture, using sources other than Greg to support your ideas. These sources may be ones that Greg references in his lecture (100 words).

Nesbit, Al. "Untitled." 'Racist' Cartoon Slammed. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

Nesbit, Al. “Untitled.” ‘Racist’ Cartoon Slammed. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

This comic by Al Nesbit shows he common perception of the way the benefit is used, from this particular comic buying booze, smokes and pokies and how people on the benefit are typically generalized as being overweight, Maori or Pacifica people within New Zealand. One key idea that Greg touches on that connects to the comic is the poverty ridge and the poverty peak. I believe that this connects because this touches onto the idea of how poverty is actually defined, the cartoon showing they are in ‘poverty’ but still have enough money to spend on unnecessary items. In this cartoon the two main characters are also believed to be able to just scrape by with the money they have if they are able to get this free food, thus showing that there are different degrees of poverty and the lines are very blurred.

Using Chapters 13 and 14 of Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History, draw up a timeline of significant events in Aotearoa from the end of WW2 (1945) to the year of the ill-fated Sesquicentennial (1990). Your timeline should include at least 20 key moments, with the more noteworthy events highlighted to indicate their importance. Be creative in your approach. 

The key dates and notes are bold and sub dates are non bold.

  • January 1946: Maori Battalion Returned
    • 1946: Increase of Maori presence nationally and internationally in terms of music and art.
    • 1950 – 60’s: Department of Maori affairs deliver services.
  • 1945 – 1948: Maori filled department ranking including senior, spending from government on Maori affairs increased.
    • 1940’s: Maori Land development policy turned Maori land into national drive to increase demands for meat, wool, and dairy post war.
  • 1940’s: Families asked state for housing, power, jobs, education, health, and welfare. Prime minister Peter Frazer (Labour) begins investigating land issues, training for youth, education, employment, decent affordable housing.
  • End of 1940’s: Maori social and economic Advancement act 1945, contact between Maori people and Maori Affairs.
    • 1940: Frazer Encouraged Maori women’s welfare. Re-branded and launched in 1951 as national branches of the Maori Women’s welfare league.
    • 1947: Committees Fundraising for Marae maintenance, water supplies, education, sport. Minister could subsidize committee fundraising up to one pound for every one pound raised themselves.
  • 1958: One of seventy-six tribal executives had passed a public health by-law.
  • 1949: First National government took office.
  • 1948: Tipi Ropiha first Maori to head the department (Maori affairs) under Fraser.
  • 1949: Ernest Corbett – Maori affairs portfolio, spending on housing increased improved resourcing for land administration and development.
  • 1950: The crown became major shareholders of blocks of land (Maori Land) Maori MP’s , Believed this would lead to landlessness for significant number of people.
    • 1940’s: Government had little tolerance for so called sentimental attachments to lands (Taonga).
    • 1950’s: Maori land titles hinder land development, deterred Maori people’s overall progression in the modern world.
  • 1951: First meeting of Maori woman in wellington, 300, from women’s Welfare League.
  • 1950’s: Economic Boom, settling in housing was substandard, vacant, and deteriorating.
    • 1950’s: Home ownership best solution to solving Maori housing crisis. Maori towns / cities / communities didn’t have regular incomes, improvising employment. Pressing relocation from rural to urban.
    • 1936 -1945: Percentage of Maori in urban areas more than doubled from 11.2% to 26%
  • 1966: Maori migrant peaked. 62% of Maori population lined in urban areas.
  • 1960’s: Young adults moving to urban, forgetting past and people who relied for the money. Started living in the moment.
    • 1960’s: concerns around carefree, unattended young Maori, mostly young women in the city being exposed to drinking and bad company.
  • 1960s: Maori lived among Pakeha if Pakeha allowed this. Sometimes Maori would occupy whole apartment blocks as the Pakeha didn’t want Maori neighbours.
  • 1960s: Closer Maori communities led to Maori believing they mattered in society, Maori rights, either imagined or real were being preserved. The Maori culture would continue unthreatened.
  • 1960s: The Hunn Report – examined the social and economic circumstances of the Maori people.
    • 1960s/1970s – Interracial marriage increased.
    • 1970s – Disagreements occur between the radical new face Maori aspirations; Nga Tamatoa, and the conservative approach of Maori Women’s Welfare league.
    • 1970s – Maori begin to grapple with the meanings of being Tangata Whenua, being Maori.
  • 1970s: Nga Tamatoa pushes to have Te Reo Maori included in the school curriculum, joining its efforts to those of the Te Reo Maori society.
  • 1970s: Protests at the Official Waitangi Day proceedings.
    • Maori accused that Tamatoa of disgracing Maoridom, and rebuked their use of so called Pakeha protest methods.
    • Public and media views of Nga Tamatoa as radicalized and aggressive.
    • 1975: Maori language day expands to Maori language week.
  • 1970s: Maori protests put land rights center stage, especially 1975 after the Maori land march.
  • 1975: led by the 80 year old Whina Cooper, a march left Cape Reinga on the 14th September 1975, the anniversary of Maori language week on a trek the length of the North Island. Cooper brought a degree of conservatism to the marches leadership. The march signaled a marking out of Maori bottom line and determination to hold onto what little land Maori had left.
  • 1975: Governmental bill introduced to establish Waitangi Tribunal – The Treaty of Waitangi act 1975 which passed just days before the march reached Wellington.
  • 1975: Land March continues after grievances were insufficient. Some 40,00 supporters joined – Memorial right presented, was signed by 200 Kuia and Kaumata. With associated petition signings numbering 60,000.
    • yet tensions also came to surface when a group of 60 marchers refused to leave parliament ground instead occupying the front steps for two months.
    • Growing Pakeha interested in ideals of nationhood.
  • 1973: Passage of New Zealand Day act in 1973. Though the act changed name from the recognized Waitangi Day to New Zealand day, which only lasted three years.
    • Waitangi tribunal started up slowing only receiving just 14 claims up to 1984, mainly focused on environmental concerns.
  • 1977: Despite providing an outlet for Treaty grievances, the tribunal and treaty of Waitangi act failed to entrench themselves in the framework of Aotearoa.
  • 1977/1978: Two major Maori land right events followed the land march and the establishment of the tribunal: the occupations at Takaparawhā (Bastion Point) and at Raglen Gold course 1977 and 1978. Bation Point being occupied for seventeen months.
  • 1978: The occupation of Bastion Bay ended in 25th May 1978. Police and Military arrived with Batons. Police surrounded and forced protestors from the land arresting 222 people in the matter of hours the protest sight was flattened.
  • Late 1970s: The Waitangi Action committee was one of those to denounce the Waitangi Day commemorations as hollow and tokenistic. ‘The Treaty is a fraud.’ Its slogan.
    • 1979: He Taua – a group confronted university of Auckland engineer students practicing a mock haka in preparation for graduation. The haka had for a number of years been an annual event.
  • 1980s: The forth Labour governments corporatizations of state assists began in the 1980s. Maori communities were hard hit, exposing the fragilities of the local economies. Downsizing and reconstructing manufacturing and primary sector industries. As state corporations took hold, it struck at more sources of employment on which Maori relied.
    • 1980 – In 1980 around 700 Maori were among those made redundant when a South Auckland freezing works closed.
    • Unemployment low incomes and welfare dependency mixed with other social realities like high crime rates lead to rising ‘poverty’.
    • 1948 – Poi E became the best-selling single in New Zealand.
  • By the time Poi E hit the airwaves, the Rangatahi who had migrated to cities in the 1950s and 60s had matured into the new roles within homes many of which were rented from the state.

Texts Referenced:

(Gilbert, Dr. Greg. “Ecomonic Inequality Aotearoa.” Week 8 Lecture. Massey University, Wellington. 23 Sept. 2016.)

(Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter 13 – Māori Affairs 1945 – 1970.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 382-413. Print.)

(Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter 14 – Rights and Revitalisation: 1970-1990.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 416-450. Print.)

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