237131_A1_Week6_ Māori Visual and Cultural Arts _31/08/2016.

Both Mane-Wheoki and Anderson describe how Māori visual and material culture has been framed by predominantly western accounts. Discuss this, using both readings to support your discussion (100 words).

I believe that the Māori visual and material culture has been framed by western accounts because they were first people to actually record the Māori and Moriori through paintings/drawings/written texts (Anderson et al. 136) They are the first people to create accounts of what these people looked like, as in the Māori culture most accounts of perilous times was done orally or through story telling. James Cook is an example of explaining what the people at the time looked like and the respect that was held (Anderson et al. 136). As stated in ‘Art’s Histories in Aotearoa New Zealand’ by Jonathan Mane Wheoki, the Pākehā perspectives and actions were more prominent in art at the time, shaping the way the Māori visual and material culture was portrayed. But now there is potential for a bicultural history of art in Aotearoa New Zealand (9).

Choose an example of 20th century art/design from anywhere in “Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History”. Upload the example to your blog and explain how the work can be considered from a Māori worldview (consider origins, customary practices etc) (100 words).

Karaoke, Emily. Local Government Tea Party. 1997. Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Wellington, N.Z.: Bridget Williams, 2014. 449-99. Print.

Karaka, Emily. Local Government Tea Party. 1997. Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Wellington, N.Z.: Bridget Williams, 2014. 449-99. Print.

This painting was painted in 1997 by Emily Karaka, with her works being typically related to the Treaty of Waitangi and political, social  and environmental issues. Here she is discussing the contemporary effect/application of the Treaty of Waitangi. This painting is showing the relationship between her iwi and the Auckland government. I believe that this contemporary work shows a Māori worldview because it shows the impacts that history has had and is still having on her iwi and its history. Its also showing that the aftereffects of the Treaty of Waitangi are very effective on the Māori culture and identity, creating an overall confrontational and negative worldview into the effects of the European arrivals.

Texts Referenced:

(Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter Five: In the Foreign Gaze.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 132-59. Print.)

(Wheoki, Jonathan Mane. “Journal of Art Historiography Number 4 June 2011 Art’s Histories in Aotearoa New Zealand.” Crossing Cultures: Conflict, Migration and Convergence: The Proceedings of the 32nd International Congress of the History of Art. By Jaynie Anderson. Carlton, Vic.: Miegunyah, 2009. 1-12. Print.)

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237131_A1_Week5_ New Zealand History _24/08/2016.

Summarise Belich, James. “Chapter 8: Making empire?” Making Peoples: A history of the New Zealanders, from Polynesian settlement to the end of the nineteenth century. Hawai’i Press, 2001. 179-203. Print. Use quotes and citations where appropriate. (150 words).

The French believed that when colonizing the South Island that becoming catholic makes them french. Although the French Empire died out the British Empire continued to grow. Civilizing Māori and colonizing NZ started around 1771, Benjamin Franklin. William Hobson was brought to NZ as the British representative and claimed sovereignty from small part of NZ to the whole of it. 6th February 1840 Treaty of Waitangi was signed, thus the British Empire believed they has full sovereignty over New Zealand. The introduction of a bigger defense force was brought in in 1864. It is seen in the Treaty of Waitangi has a difficult historical merit to see because both parties intentions were in conflict with each other (195). Differentiating opinions can create different scenarios around what the Māori race was thought as, for example being the victim of land, independence and even culture being taken by the British after signing the Treaty of Waitangi (197). Such chiefs competed to lease and sell land during the 1840s & 1850s leading to civil wars in 1857 (198).

Using Dick’s lecture and tutorial discussions to help you, explain how you think these events impacted on visual and material culture in Aotearoa/New Zealand. (50 words).

These event would impact visual and material culture in New Zealand because this could effect the way that the country was viewed by others. Flags are a good example of how the Treaty of Waitangi changed the way that visual material was used to represent New Zealand at the period of time. An example would be the introduction of the union jack into the flag, this would take away from the visual culture that the Māori had created in a flag perviously.

Texts Referenced:

(Belich, James. “Chapter 8: Making Empire?” Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders, from Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century. Honolulu: U of Hawai’i, 1996. 179-203. Print.)

237131_A1_Week4_ Taonga Works and Values _15/08/2016.

'Maori Battalion Haka in Egypt, 1941' 1941. Alex Turnbull Library. New Zealand History. Web. 15 Aug. 2016.

‘Maori Battalion Haka in Egypt, 1941’ 1941. Alex Turnbull Library. New Zealand History. Web. 15 Aug. 2016.

1.) Choose one term from Moko Mead’s “Ngā Pūtanga o te tikanga: Underlying principals and values”, paraphrase this and explain how it can be applied to art/design. Use citations carefully to differentiate Meads ideas from your own (100 words).

“The link between tika and pono on the one hand and values on the other is that values have to do with ‘principles or standards of behavior…'” (Mead 26)  This can be applied to art/design because we as artists and designers have to understand the values and when approaching Māori art as well as any art we have to understand the principles behind the work. It is stated that tika is a true principle of tikanga (Mead 25) and being able to understand tikanga we need to understand to standards and principles that underlie tikanga which is tika and pono. We can use this when trying to add context to a piece of work.

Tika – right or correct

Pono – true or genuine

2.) Explain one way intellectual property and copyright laws are insufficient to address the misuse of taonga works. Use “Taonga works and intellectual property” to inform your response, including quotes and citations where appropriate (100 words).

One way that intellectual property and copyright laws don’t cover the misuse taonga works is the way that work is used overseas and not covered by the Treaty of Waitangi. It is said that New Zealand doesn’t have a way to make the international market accept the Treaty-complaint standards and are also unable to try and persuade other countries to adopt this reform (51). So overall this covers the use of taonga work in New Zealand but not in an international market, which could be a problem for artists as they lose their kaitiakitanga over the work.

Texts Referenced:

Mead, Sidney M. “Ngā Pūtanga O Te Tikanga: Underlying Principals and Values.” Tikanga Māori: Living by Māori Values. Wellington, N.Z.: Huia, 2003. 25-33. Print.

“Taonga Works and Intellectual Property.” Ko Aotearoa Tēnei: Te Taumata Tuatahi: A Report into Claims concerning New Zealand Law and Policy Affecting Māori Culture and Identity. Wellington, N.Z.: Legislation Direct, 2011. 29-59. Print.

 

237131_A1_Week3_ Te Tipunga – the Growth _09/08/2016.

Choose one example of art or design made during one of the first three periods of New Zealand art history as defined by Hirini Moko Mead (Ngā Kākano – the seeds – (circa 900 to 1200 CE); Te Tipunga – the growth (1200 to 1500 CE); Te Puawaitanga – the flowering (1500–1800 AD)). Upload an image of this example. Identify one aspect of the example’s form that directly relates to its context/art historical period. Describe the example, its context, and the relationship between the form and the context in detail (150 – 200 words).

Aotea Utanganui Museum of South Taranaki, A.82.500, photo: Richard Wotton.

Aotea Utanganui Museum of South Taranaki, A.82.500, photo: Richard Wotton.

This object was made to stop waves from coming over the canoe prow, which I believe would effect the movement of the canoe and effect the sailing. This particular piece shows the effect of East Polynesian styles and its geometric style. The distinctive curvilinear forms showed that this change happened in the late Māori era. It shows the geometric band of lines and the spiral forms that were slightly carved using a small chisel with a curved end. This shows that the  mixed styles and the attention to carving decoration shows the transitional changing nature of carving. Radiocarbon dates shoed that the piece dates back to the 15th century.

(All information is edited from page 73)

Texts Referenced:

Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter Three: Pieces of the Past.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 70-101. Print.

237131_A1_Week2_ Visual Importance_03/08/2016.

Select an art or design example from the first chapter of Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History, “Ancient Origins” (2014). Upload an image of this example to your blog and write 150-200 words explaining why this example is important. Use Athol Anderson’s text to support your claims.

Matthew McIntyre Wilson, The Price of Change, New Zealand and Cook Island coins, 2009.

Matthew McIntyre Wilson, The Price of Change, New Zealand and Cook Island coins, 2009. (Figure 1)

Pardington, Fiona. Heitiki (female). 2002. Okains Bay Museum, Ngāi Tahu, Christchurch.

Pardington, Fiona. Heitiki (female). 2002. Okains Bay Museum, Ngāi Tahu, Christchurch. (Figure 2)

Hei Tiki is  neck pendants in the shape of  human beings, which were supposedly made to celebrate the advent of mankind (40). These hei tikis were connected to Hine-te-iwaiwa, the wife of Tiki and sister of Maui. Being connected to childbirth, hei tikis were typically given to pregnant women as protection but were worn by men and women.

I have chosen these two examples of hei tiki because I  think they show hei tiki in a new context. Figure 1 is showing how hei tiki is being used to shine light on the history of the nineteenth century. Whereas figure 2 is showing what the hei tiki is and is using this taonga to show her heritage and Māori culture to the wider world, creating more awareness.

Texts Referenced:

Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Ancient Origins.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 16-41. Print.