237131_A2_Week11 _ Years Pōwhiri Process _18/10/2016.

1. In each of your assignments for Studio this year you made work that responded to a concept integral to the pōwhiri process – Mihimihi, Tūrangawaewae,  Atea, and Hākari. Define the concept that corresponds with the project you feel was the best thing you made in Studio all year. (25 words)

Tūrangawaewae means standing, a place where one has the right to stand (Māori Dictionary). I believe that in correspondence to the meaning of Tūrangawaewae, this was the best project as I believe I felt quite a connection to the memory I have and the place where it happened, creating the place where I created my right to stand there.

2. Discuss the work you made: describe its physical attributes, the concept/s behind it, and the wider context in which you made it. (100 words)

The physical attributes around the work was inspired by a photography event I attended in Queenstown. Here I wanted to look into the relationship between the body and the camera itself. Here I looked into ways of how the camera was held in the hand and ways of making this more comfortable. Here I was able to design a product that fit onto your hand nicely and be able to change the focus and move the camera lens.

3. Erna Stachl discusses decolonisation and Mana Wahine in her lecture. How did you consider gender and/or indigeneity and/or the intersections between the two in your work? Why should you be thinking about this at all? Use key ideas in the lecture and the texts by Ani Mikaere and Linda Tuhiwai-Smith to support your argument. (75 words)

When creating this art piece,  I didn’t feel I really needed to take gender into account because I felt that it could be used across both genders equally. As for indigeneity, this was something that didn’t cross my mind either. If I was thinking about creating an intersection between the two, I would look into the way that imported ideologies could effect my design and how I could change these ideologies. With Erna talking about imported ideologies or western perceptions, I would like to see whether my design cold change this for a more positive outcome.

Text Referenced:

(Www.vo2.co.nz. “MāoriDictionary.” Tūrangawaewae. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2016.)

(Stachl, Erna. “Week 11: Looking at Mana Wahine and Decolonisation.” Lecture 11 – Looking at Mana Wahine and Decolonisation – Erna Stachl. Massey University, Wellington. 14 Oct. 2016. Lecture.)

237131_A2_Week10 _ Cultural Identity _11/10/2016.

Inspired by Kerry Ann Lee’s lecture and Tze Ming Mok’s essay, create a piece of creative non-fiction in which you talk about your own cultural identity. You must make at least one connection with a significant moment in the history of Aotearoa (i.e. like Tze Ming Mok did with the attack on Chi Phung, the National Front protest, and the Seabed and Foreshore hīkoi), and you must draw from your own lived experience. (200 words)

When it comes to cultural identity, I firstly like to remember where I came from and my families history and stories. One part of my families history that still happens today is a tangi that are held for family member at the marae. After my grandfathers passing we had a traditional tangi where family members travelled back to Rangeitukia, Ngāti Porou. Here this is where I learnt about previous family members that had been part of the 28th Māori Battalion. Here I learnt about the history of the Māori Battalion and how these men going away as part of the 2nd division had a massive effect on Māori families during World War II. One part that inspired me the most is an image of the Māori Battalion haka in Egypt 1941. Here I was able to see two members of my iwi in uniform performing a haka for the King of Greece, John Manual and Te Kooti Reihana. It is amazing to see that this image has been graved in the history of the 28th Māori Battalion and I am proud to see this history being seen by generations to come.

Go to the library and ask for one of the 237.1312 hour loan books. Find the name of a creative practitioner in that book, then search for that name on the book catalogue PCs (upstairs, Level B – don’t use Discover). Locate an image of their work (preferably in print) that fits with your creative writing. Scan this and upload it to your blog, remembering to include a caption.


Māori Battalion War Memorial Building. N.d. Palmerston North City Library Photograph Collection, Palmerston North. Māori Art : History, Architecture, Landscape and Theory. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 166. Print. Architect of Building: John Scott

237131_A2_Week9 _ Glossary _04/10/2016.

Words and definitions are gathered from  “Ngā tikanga o te marae” (Rawinia Higgins and John C. Moorfieldo) and maoridictionary.co.nz

Hui – to gather, to meet, to assemble

Manuhiri – visitors, guest

marae ātea – courtyard

wharenui – meeting house, where guests are accommodated

waerea – protective incantation (series of words said as a magic charm or spell)

karakia – to recite ritual chants, say grace, pray, recite a prayer, chant.

mākutu – ability to inflict physical or physiological her or death through spiritual powers.

wero – a challenge delivered by the tangata whenua to the visitors to determine the nature of the encounter.

Tangata Whenua – at home, to be natural

taki – dart

waewae tapu – newcomer, rare visitor.

karanga – to call, to shout, to summon, to call out.

whaikōrero – formal speech

whakaeke – to attack, insult, invade, alight.

haka pōhiri – welcoming haka, ceremonial dance.

rau – green leaves

paepae – orators’ bench

whakaaraara. – warning call

tau- year, age

tauparapara – incantation to begin the speech

whare tipuna – ancestral house

mate – dead

kawa – protocols

koha – gifts or tokens of appreciation

whakanoa – to remove tapu

tangi – to cry, to mourn, weep, weep over.

waiata – to sing

harirū – to shake hands

manaakitanga – generosity, kindness, hospitality

manaaki – to support, take care of

pepeha – to say, exclaim

237131_A2_Week9 _ Māori Sterotypes and Pōwhiri _04/10/2016.

Draw (collage/photograph/paint/whatevs) the stages of the pōwhiri in a series of illustrated panels. This can be as sophisticated or as low-fi as you like – it just needs to clearly communicate the pōwhiri process to an unfamiliar audience. Imagine you are drawing it for people who have never been onto a marae. You may like to pick a particular time period (i.e. the 1400s, 1890s, 1950s, 2010s, the future) and allow that to inform your stylistic decisions. Remember to include relevant key terms and to clearly name each part of the pōwhiri. Use “Ngā tikanga o te marae” (Rawinia Higgins and John C. Moorfield) to inform your drawing.

The perspective that I have done this works in are from the perspective of the manuhiri, the visitors coming onto the marae.


Whakaeke – the movement of the manuhiri onto the marae ātea.  A wero is performed by the armed warrior(s) that is sent to greet the visitors at the entryway to perform the ritual. This is completed to maintain the mana of the tangata whenua. Once the male leader has picked up the taki, a women will karanga. Today this starts the pōhiri 6. There karanga is by one or more women from the tangata whenua, then the women form the visitors will respond with their calls as they move onto the marae.


Whaikōreo – the formal speeches given. Koha is also given and received. The whaikōreo is typically started with a whakaaraara, tau or tauparapara before making acknowledgment of the marae, where tipuna, mate, and eventually the purpose of the hui. The whaikōreo follows kawa of the marae. A koha is given by the visitors to the tangata whenua at the end of the speeches. traditional māori society this koha was typically food, especially delicacies form the local area of the visitors and/or taonga, which could be weapons to finely woven cloaks. Today is typically a sum of money.


Hongi – Greeting of noses. The hongi is given to the speakers of the tangata whenua, standing all in a line. There is a handshake and hongi (greetings by pressing of noses) this is greet everyone. The hongi completes the formalities of the pōhiri. The process is the gradual coming together of the manuhiri and the tangata whenua.

Melanie Wall identifies some of the more common Māori stereotypes that have appeared in New Zealand’s media. Take one of the examples of representations of Māori from Dick’s lecture and discuss it in relation to Wall’s ideas (100 words).

One way that Dick describes one representation of Māori is the contrast between Māori art and Western art and how this could represent Māori. For example Dick uses Michael Parekowhai’s work The Indefinite Article (1990) as an example of talking about gender. I AM HE could be interpreted as the male gender being dominant and that you are HE and not representing both genders. I believe this could relate to the way Melanie Wall identifies that when Māori were generalised in the media as being all male in their 20s or 30s when encountering a political situation (43). Here we can understand that the representation of Māori in the media is predominantly male and that everyone is put into a pool of gender stereotype.

Texts Referenced:

(Moorfield, John C., and Rawinia Higgins. ““Ngā Tikanga O Te Marae”.” Ki Te Whaiao: An Introduction to Māori Culture and Society. By Tania Ka’ai. Auckland, N.Z.: Pearson Longman, 2004. 73-84. Print.)

(Wall, Melanie. “Stereotypical Constructions of the Maori ‘Race’ in the Media.” New Zealand Geographer 1997: 40-45. Print.)

(Whyte, Dick. “Stereotypes and Speaking Back to New Zealand’s Dominant Culture.” Conversations in Creative Cultures Lecture. Massey University, Wellington. 30 Sept. 2016. Lecture.)

(Parekowhai, Michael. The Indefinite Article. 1990. Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland. The Indefinite Article. Regional Facilities Auckland, 2009. Web. 8 Oct. 2016.)

237131_A2_Week8 _ People vs. Poverty _27/09/2016.

Select one of the examples of a representation of poverty or wealth in Aotearoa New Zealand in Dr. Greg Gilbert’s lecture. Upload an image of this example to your blog. Describe the example and the context in which it was made, then discuss it in relation to one of the key concepts Greg introduced in his lecture, using sources other than Greg to support your ideas. These sources may be ones that Greg references in his lecture (100 words).

Nesbit, Al. "Untitled." 'Racist' Cartoon Slammed. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

Nesbit, Al. “Untitled.” ‘Racist’ Cartoon Slammed. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

This comic by Al Nesbit shows he common perception of the way the benefit is used, from this particular comic buying booze, smokes and pokies and how people on the benefit are typically generalized as being overweight, Maori or Pacifica people within New Zealand. One key idea that Greg touches on that connects to the comic is the poverty ridge and the poverty peak. I believe that this connects because this touches onto the idea of how poverty is actually defined, the cartoon showing they are in ‘poverty’ but still have enough money to spend on unnecessary items. In this cartoon the two main characters are also believed to be able to just scrape by with the money they have if they are able to get this free food, thus showing that there are different degrees of poverty and the lines are very blurred.

Using Chapters 13 and 14 of Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History, draw up a timeline of significant events in Aotearoa from the end of WW2 (1945) to the year of the ill-fated Sesquicentennial (1990). Your timeline should include at least 20 key moments, with the more noteworthy events highlighted to indicate their importance. Be creative in your approach. 

The key dates and notes are bold and sub dates are non bold.

  • January 1946: Maori Battalion Returned
    • 1946: Increase of Maori presence nationally and internationally in terms of music and art.
    • 1950 – 60’s: Department of Maori affairs deliver services.
  • 1945 – 1948: Maori filled department ranking including senior, spending from government on Maori affairs increased.
    • 1940’s: Maori Land development policy turned Maori land into national drive to increase demands for meat, wool, and dairy post war.
  • 1940’s: Families asked state for housing, power, jobs, education, health, and welfare. Prime minister Peter Frazer (Labour) begins investigating land issues, training for youth, education, employment, decent affordable housing.
  • End of 1940’s: Maori social and economic Advancement act 1945, contact between Maori people and Maori Affairs.
    • 1940: Frazer Encouraged Maori women’s welfare. Re-branded and launched in 1951 as national branches of the Maori Women’s welfare league.
    • 1947: Committees Fundraising for Marae maintenance, water supplies, education, sport. Minister could subsidize committee fundraising up to one pound for every one pound raised themselves.
  • 1958: One of seventy-six tribal executives had passed a public health by-law.
  • 1949: First National government took office.
  • 1948: Tipi Ropiha first Maori to head the department (Maori affairs) under Fraser.
  • 1949: Ernest Corbett – Maori affairs portfolio, spending on housing increased improved resourcing for land administration and development.
  • 1950: The crown became major shareholders of blocks of land (Maori Land) Maori MP’s , Believed this would lead to landlessness for significant number of people.
    • 1940’s: Government had little tolerance for so called sentimental attachments to lands (Taonga).
    • 1950’s: Maori land titles hinder land development, deterred Maori people’s overall progression in the modern world.
  • 1951: First meeting of Maori woman in wellington, 300, from women’s Welfare League.
  • 1950’s: Economic Boom, settling in housing was substandard, vacant, and deteriorating.
    • 1950’s: Home ownership best solution to solving Maori housing crisis. Maori towns / cities / communities didn’t have regular incomes, improvising employment. Pressing relocation from rural to urban.
    • 1936 -1945: Percentage of Maori in urban areas more than doubled from 11.2% to 26%
  • 1966: Maori migrant peaked. 62% of Maori population lined in urban areas.
  • 1960’s: Young adults moving to urban, forgetting past and people who relied for the money. Started living in the moment.
    • 1960’s: concerns around carefree, unattended young Maori, mostly young women in the city being exposed to drinking and bad company.
  • 1960s: Maori lived among Pakeha if Pakeha allowed this. Sometimes Maori would occupy whole apartment blocks as the Pakeha didn’t want Maori neighbours.
  • 1960s: Closer Maori communities led to Maori believing they mattered in society, Maori rights, either imagined or real were being preserved. The Maori culture would continue unthreatened.
  • 1960s: The Hunn Report – examined the social and economic circumstances of the Maori people.
    • 1960s/1970s – Interracial marriage increased.
    • 1970s – Disagreements occur between the radical new face Maori aspirations; Nga Tamatoa, and the conservative approach of Maori Women’s Welfare league.
    • 1970s – Maori begin to grapple with the meanings of being Tangata Whenua, being Maori.
  • 1970s: Nga Tamatoa pushes to have Te Reo Maori included in the school curriculum, joining its efforts to those of the Te Reo Maori society.
  • 1970s: Protests at the Official Waitangi Day proceedings.
    • Maori accused that Tamatoa of disgracing Maoridom, and rebuked their use of so called Pakeha protest methods.
    • Public and media views of Nga Tamatoa as radicalized and aggressive.
    • 1975: Maori language day expands to Maori language week.
  • 1970s: Maori protests put land rights center stage, especially 1975 after the Maori land march.
  • 1975: led by the 80 year old Whina Cooper, a march left Cape Reinga on the 14th September 1975, the anniversary of Maori language week on a trek the length of the North Island. Cooper brought a degree of conservatism to the marches leadership. The march signaled a marking out of Maori bottom line and determination to hold onto what little land Maori had left.
  • 1975: Governmental bill introduced to establish Waitangi Tribunal – The Treaty of Waitangi act 1975 which passed just days before the march reached Wellington.
  • 1975: Land March continues after grievances were insufficient. Some 40,00 supporters joined – Memorial right presented, was signed by 200 Kuia and Kaumata. With associated petition signings numbering 60,000.
    • yet tensions also came to surface when a group of 60 marchers refused to leave parliament ground instead occupying the front steps for two months.
    • Growing Pakeha interested in ideals of nationhood.
  • 1973: Passage of New Zealand Day act in 1973. Though the act changed name from the recognized Waitangi Day to New Zealand day, which only lasted three years.
    • Waitangi tribunal started up slowing only receiving just 14 claims up to 1984, mainly focused on environmental concerns.
  • 1977: Despite providing an outlet for Treaty grievances, the tribunal and treaty of Waitangi act failed to entrench themselves in the framework of Aotearoa.
  • 1977/1978: Two major Maori land right events followed the land march and the establishment of the tribunal: the occupations at Takaparawhā (Bastion Point) and at Raglen Gold course 1977 and 1978. Bation Point being occupied for seventeen months.
  • 1978: The occupation of Bastion Bay ended in 25th May 1978. Police and Military arrived with Batons. Police surrounded and forced protestors from the land arresting 222 people in the matter of hours the protest sight was flattened.
  • Late 1970s: The Waitangi Action committee was one of those to denounce the Waitangi Day commemorations as hollow and tokenistic. ‘The Treaty is a fraud.’ Its slogan.
    • 1979: He Taua – a group confronted university of Auckland engineer students practicing a mock haka in preparation for graduation. The haka had for a number of years been an annual event.
  • 1980s: The forth Labour governments corporatizations of state assists began in the 1980s. Maori communities were hard hit, exposing the fragilities of the local economies. Downsizing and reconstructing manufacturing and primary sector industries. As state corporations took hold, it struck at more sources of employment on which Maori relied.
    • 1980 – In 1980 around 700 Maori were among those made redundant when a South Auckland freezing works closed.
    • Unemployment low incomes and welfare dependency mixed with other social realities like high crime rates lead to rising ‘poverty’.
    • 1948 – Poi E became the best-selling single in New Zealand.
  • By the time Poi E hit the airwaves, the Rangatahi who had migrated to cities in the 1950s and 60s had matured into the new roles within homes many of which were rented from the state.

Texts Referenced:

(Gilbert, Dr. Greg. “Ecomonic Inequality Aotearoa.” Week 8 Lecture. Massey University, Wellington. 23 Sept. 2016.)

(Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter 13 – Māori Affairs 1945 – 1970.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 382-413. Print.)

(Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter 14 – Rights and Revitalisation: 1970-1990.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 416-450. Print.)

237131_A2_Week7_ People and Tinned Food _20/09/2016.

1. Identify one key point and/or theme from the Week 7 lecture. Find an academic source (not the lecture itself, but the source may be one that is cited in the lecture) for that key point/theme. Paraphrase the academic source text relating to the key point/theme. Remember to accurately reference the source using the MLA style (50 words).

Tuffery, Michel. Pisupo Lua Afe (Corned Beef 2000). 1999. Te Papa, Wellington. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

Tufferey, Michel. Pisupo Lua Afe (Corned Beef 2000). 1999. Te Papa, Wellington. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

One main point that Sarah Jane introduced into the lecture was the introduction of imported foods/goods into the Polynesian community and what effect this introduction had on their physical/mental health but also the effect this had on traditional food given at events like weddings, funerals and gift-giving. As stated by the artist, Michel Tufferey commented ‘how an imported product has replaced local Pacific Island foods used in feasts and gift giving.’ (Te Papa). Thus showing that through art that these social changes can be shown and brought into the community and showing the impact history has had on this community.

2. Using examples in “All Power to the People” by Melani Anae (2012), or “The Many Faces of Paradise” by Caroline Vercoe (2004), describe one of the art/design/creative responses to the socio-political situation that confronted Pacific Islanders in Aotearoa in the late 20th century (50 – 75 words).

Kihara, Shigeyuki. Gossip Sessions. 2002. Black Sunday, New York. The MET Museum. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

Kihara, Shigeyuki. Gossip Sessions. 2002. Black Sunday, New York. The MET Museum. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

Gossip Sessions from the Black Sunday series shown in the text “The Many Faces of Paradise” is touching onto the issues of representations of Pacifica people during the colonial period. Shigeyuki Kihara’s works look into the issues around the way colonial narratives could have been inscribed on the Pacifica bodies via stereotypes (43). The work above is talking about the issues surrounding the natural dress of the Pacifica people, and who through the introduction of covering their bare chests to show modesty and discretion. This was something that was taught by missionaries. This image is highlighting and counters the stereotyped sexualizing of women and the savage (45).  Overall this is touching onto the political issue of this introduction of colonial people to the natives and how this changed the visual history of the Pacifica people.

3. Write a synopsis of the documentary ‘Dawn Raids’ (Fepulea’i, D. 2005) (50 – 75 words).

The documentary ‘Dawn Raids’ talks about the issues surrounding the introduction of Pacifica people into New Zealand during a time of need for people doing labour, but once there were no jobs left people were in need thus leading to social and political issues during the 1970s. This documentary touches on the police during the item and the taking of people early in the morning who don’t have visas or visitor permits being taken back to Samoa and also the racial implements that were occurring in society around Samoan people. It also shines light onto the treatment of Samoan people and the leading into social groups endorsing the power of Samoan people.

Texts Referenced:

(@Te_Papa. “Pisupo Lua Afe (Corned Beef 2000).” Object:. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.)

(Vercoe, Caroline. “The Many Faces of Paradise.” Paradise Now?: Contemporary Art from the Pacific. New York: Asia Society, 2004. 35-47. Print.)



237131_A1_Week6_ Māori Visual and Cultural Arts _31/08/2016.

Both Mane-Wheoki and Anderson describe how Māori visual and material culture has been framed by predominantly western accounts. Discuss this, using both readings to support your discussion (100 words).

I believe that the Māori visual and material culture has been framed by western accounts because they were first people to actually record the Māori and Moriori through paintings/drawings/written texts (Anderson et al. 136) They are the first people to create accounts of what these people looked like, as in the Māori culture most accounts of perilous times was done orally or through story telling. James Cook is an example of explaining what the people at the time looked like and the respect that was held (Anderson et al. 136). As stated in ‘Art’s Histories in Aotearoa New Zealand’ by Jonathan Mane Wheoki, the Pākehā perspectives and actions were more prominent in art at the time, shaping the way the Māori visual and material culture was portrayed. But now there is potential for a bicultural history of art in Aotearoa New Zealand (9).

Choose an example of 20th century art/design from anywhere in “Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History”. Upload the example to your blog and explain how the work can be considered from a Māori worldview (consider origins, customary practices etc) (100 words).

Karaoke, Emily. Local Government Tea Party. 1997. Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Wellington, N.Z.: Bridget Williams, 2014. 449-99. Print.

Karaka, Emily. Local Government Tea Party. 1997. Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Wellington, N.Z.: Bridget Williams, 2014. 449-99. Print.

This painting was painted in 1997 by Emily Karaka, with her works being typically related to the Treaty of Waitangi and political, social  and environmental issues. Here she is discussing the contemporary effect/application of the Treaty of Waitangi. This painting is showing the relationship between her iwi and the Auckland government. I believe that this contemporary work shows a Māori worldview because it shows the impacts that history has had and is still having on her iwi and its history. Its also showing that the aftereffects of the Treaty of Waitangi are very effective on the Māori culture and identity, creating an overall confrontational and negative worldview into the effects of the European arrivals.

Texts Referenced:

(Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter Five: In the Foreign Gaze.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 132-59. Print.)

(Wheoki, Jonathan Mane. “Journal of Art Historiography Number 4 June 2011 Art’s Histories in Aotearoa New Zealand.” Crossing Cultures: Conflict, Migration and Convergence: The Proceedings of the 32nd International Congress of the History of Art. By Jaynie Anderson. Carlton, Vic.: Miegunyah, 2009. 1-12. Print.)

237131_A1_Week5_ New Zealand History _24/08/2016.

Summarise Belich, James. “Chapter 8: Making empire?” Making Peoples: A history of the New Zealanders, from Polynesian settlement to the end of the nineteenth century. Hawai’i Press, 2001. 179-203. Print. Use quotes and citations where appropriate. (150 words).

The French believed that when colonizing the South Island that becoming catholic makes them french. Although the French Empire died out the British Empire continued to grow. Civilizing Māori and colonizing NZ started around 1771, Benjamin Franklin. William Hobson was brought to NZ as the British representative and claimed sovereignty from small part of NZ to the whole of it. 6th February 1840 Treaty of Waitangi was signed, thus the British Empire believed they has full sovereignty over New Zealand. The introduction of a bigger defense force was brought in in 1864. It is seen in the Treaty of Waitangi has a difficult historical merit to see because both parties intentions were in conflict with each other (195). Differentiating opinions can create different scenarios around what the Māori race was thought as, for example being the victim of land, independence and even culture being taken by the British after signing the Treaty of Waitangi (197). Such chiefs competed to lease and sell land during the 1840s & 1850s leading to civil wars in 1857 (198).

Using Dick’s lecture and tutorial discussions to help you, explain how you think these events impacted on visual and material culture in Aotearoa/New Zealand. (50 words).

These event would impact visual and material culture in New Zealand because this could effect the way that the country was viewed by others. Flags are a good example of how the Treaty of Waitangi changed the way that visual material was used to represent New Zealand at the period of time. An example would be the introduction of the union jack into the flag, this would take away from the visual culture that the Māori had created in a flag perviously.

Texts Referenced:

(Belich, James. “Chapter 8: Making Empire?” Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders, from Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century. Honolulu: U of Hawai’i, 1996. 179-203. Print.)

237131_A1_Week4_ Taonga Works and Values _15/08/2016.

'Maori Battalion Haka in Egypt, 1941' 1941. Alex Turnbull Library. New Zealand History. Web. 15 Aug. 2016.

‘Maori Battalion Haka in Egypt, 1941’ 1941. Alex Turnbull Library. New Zealand History. Web. 15 Aug. 2016.

1.) Choose one term from Moko Mead’s “Ngā Pūtanga o te tikanga: Underlying principals and values”, paraphrase this and explain how it can be applied to art/design. Use citations carefully to differentiate Meads ideas from your own (100 words).

“The link between tika and pono on the one hand and values on the other is that values have to do with ‘principles or standards of behavior…'” (Mead 26)  This can be applied to art/design because we as artists and designers have to understand the values and when approaching Māori art as well as any art we have to understand the principles behind the work. It is stated that tika is a true principle of tikanga (Mead 25) and being able to understand tikanga we need to understand to standards and principles that underlie tikanga which is tika and pono. We can use this when trying to add context to a piece of work.

Tika – right or correct

Pono – true or genuine

2.) Explain one way intellectual property and copyright laws are insufficient to address the misuse of taonga works. Use “Taonga works and intellectual property” to inform your response, including quotes and citations where appropriate (100 words).

One way that intellectual property and copyright laws don’t cover the misuse taonga works is the way that work is used overseas and not covered by the Treaty of Waitangi. It is said that New Zealand doesn’t have a way to make the international market accept the Treaty-complaint standards and are also unable to try and persuade other countries to adopt this reform (51). So overall this covers the use of taonga work in New Zealand but not in an international market, which could be a problem for artists as they lose their kaitiakitanga over the work.

Texts Referenced:

Mead, Sidney M. “Ngā Pūtanga O Te Tikanga: Underlying Principals and Values.” Tikanga Māori: Living by Māori Values. Wellington, N.Z.: Huia, 2003. 25-33. Print.

“Taonga Works and Intellectual Property.” Ko Aotearoa Tēnei: Te Taumata Tuatahi: A Report into Claims concerning New Zealand Law and Policy Affecting Māori Culture and Identity. Wellington, N.Z.: Legislation Direct, 2011. 29-59. Print.


237131_A1_Week3_ Te Tipunga – the Growth _09/08/2016.

Choose one example of art or design made during one of the first three periods of New Zealand art history as defined by Hirini Moko Mead (Ngā Kākano – the seeds – (circa 900 to 1200 CE); Te Tipunga – the growth (1200 to 1500 CE); Te Puawaitanga – the flowering (1500–1800 AD)). Upload an image of this example. Identify one aspect of the example’s form that directly relates to its context/art historical period. Describe the example, its context, and the relationship between the form and the context in detail (150 – 200 words).

Aotea Utanganui Museum of South Taranaki, A.82.500, photo: Richard Wotton.

Aotea Utanganui Museum of South Taranaki, A.82.500, photo: Richard Wotton.

This object was made to stop waves from coming over the canoe prow, which I believe would effect the movement of the canoe and effect the sailing. This particular piece shows the effect of East Polynesian styles and its geometric style. The distinctive curvilinear forms showed that this change happened in the late Māori era. It shows the geometric band of lines and the spiral forms that were slightly carved using a small chisel with a curved end. This shows that the  mixed styles and the attention to carving decoration shows the transitional changing nature of carving. Radiocarbon dates shoed that the piece dates back to the 15th century.

(All information is edited from page 73)

Texts Referenced:

Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter Three: Pieces of the Past.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 70-101. Print.